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2009 Marshall County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan


Executive Summary

Chapter 1    Introduction

1.1     Background
1.2     Authority
1.3     Funding
1.4     Eligibility for FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Grants
1.5     Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan (2004)
1.6     2009 Marshall Co. Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan Update

Chapter 2    Prerequisites

2.1   Federal Prerequisites
2.2   Plan Approval for Mitigation Grants Eligibility
2.3   Multi-Jurisdictional Participation
2.4   Multi-Jurisdictional Plan Adoption

Chapter 3    Community Profiles

3.1   Federal Advisory Guidance for Community Profiles
3.2   Summary of Plan Updates
3.3   Geographic Setting and History
3.4   Government
3.5   Climate
3.6   Demographics
3.7   Economy
3.8   Utilities
3.9   Media
3.10   Transportation

Chapter 4    The Planning

4.1   Federal Requirements for the Planning Process
4.2   Summary of Plan Updates
4.3   Opportunities for Public Comment on the Plan
4.4   Opportunities for Involvement in the Planning Process
4.5   Review and Incorporation of Applicable Plans and Documents
4.6   How the Plan was Prepared
4.7   Who was Involved in the Planning Process
4.7.1   The Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee.
4.7.2   The Mission of the Hazard M itigation Planning Committee
4.7.3   Preparation of the Plan U pdate
4.8   How the Public was Involved in the Planning Process
4.9   The Plan Review and Update Process

Chapter 5    Risk Assessment

5.1   Federal Requirements for Risk Assessments
5.2   Summary of Plan Updates
5.3   Identification and Description of Hazards
5.3.1   Identification of Hazards Affecting Each Jurisdiction
5.3.2   Tornadoes Description
5.3.3   Severe Storms Description
5.3.4   Floods Description
5.3.5   Hurricanes Description
5.3.6   Winter Storms/Freezes Description
5.3.7   Droughts/Heat Waves Description
5.3.8   Wildfires Description
5.3.9   Dam/Levee Failures
5.3.10   Landslides Description
5.3.11   Earthquake Description
5.3.12   Sinkholes (Land Subsidence) Description
5.3.13   Man-made Hazards Description
5.4   Hazard Profiles
5.4.1   Tornadoes Profile
5.4.2   Severe Storms
5.4.3   Floods
5.4.4   Winter Storms/Freezes
5.4.5   Hurricanes
5.4.6   Droughts/Heat waves
5.4.7   Wildfires
5.4.8   Dam/Levee Failures
5.4.9   Landslides
5.4.10  Earthquakes
5.4.11  Sinkholes (Land Subsidence)
5.4.12  Man-Made Hazards
5.5   Summary of Hazards and Community Impacts
5.6   Vulnerability of Structures within Each Jurisdiction
5.6.1  Scope of Structure Inventory
5.6.2  Inventory Methodology Inventory
5.6.3  HAZUS-MH Loss Estimates
5.6.4  Existing and Future Structure Vulnerabilities by Hazard
5.7   Estimate of Dollar Losses to Vulnerable Structures
5.7.1  Scope and Purpose of Loss Estimates
5.7.2  Loss Estimate Methodology
5.7.3  HAZUS-MH Loss Estimates
5.7.4  Loss Estimates Based on Historical Records
5.7.5  Recommended Risk Assessment Measures
5.8   General Description of Land Uses and Development Trends
5.9   Repetitively-Damaged NFIP-Insured Structures
5.10   Risks that Vary Among the Jurisdictions

Chapter 6    Mitigation Strategy

6.1   Federal Requirements for the Mitigation Strategy
6.2   Summary of Plan Updates
6.3   Goals for Hazard Mitigation
6.3.1   Description of How the Goal s were Developed
6.3.2   The Vision for Disa ster-Resistant Marshall Co. Communities
6.3.3   Community Goals and Objectives
6.3.4   Compatibility with 2007 Ala bama State Plan Goals
6.4   Identification and Analysis of Mitigation Actions and Projects
6.5   Participation and Compliance with the NFIP
6.6   Implementation of Mitigation Actions
6.7   Multi-Jurisdictional Community Mitigation Action Programs

Chapter 7    Plan Maintenance Process

7.1 Federal Requirements for the Plan Maintenance Process
7.2 Summary of Plan Updates
7.3 Monitoring, Evaluating, and Updating the Mitigation Plan
7.3.1 Ongoing Monitoring of the Plan
7.3.2 Evaluating the Plan
7.3.3 Plan Update Process
7.4 Incorporation of the Mitigation Plan into Other Planning Mechanisms
7.5 Continuing Public Participation in the Plan Maintenance Process


Appendix A Federal Requirements for Local Mitigation Plans.

Appendix B Community Mitigation Capabilities

Appendix C 2004 Plan Implementation Status

Appendix D HMPC Hazard Identification and Ratings

Appendix E Hazard Profile Date

Appendix F Alternative Mitigation Measures

Appendix G Committee Meeting Documentation

Appendix H Community Involvement Documentation

Appendix I Multi-Jurisdictional Participation Activities

Appendix J Adopting ResolutionJ-1

List of Maps

Map 3-1 Marshall County

Map 3-2 Location of Marshall County

Map 3-3 Topography??

Map 3-4 Municipalities

Map 3-5 Municipal Population Estimates

Map 3-6 Population Distribution

Map 3-7 2000 Median Age Distribution

Map 3-8 Major Employers

Map 3-9 Communication Towers

Map 3-10 Transportation Facilities

Map 5-1 U.S. Average Thunderstorm Days per Year

Map 5-2 2008 PGA for Southeast

Map 5-3 Tornado Paths, 1950-2006

Map 5-4 Tornado Locations 1950-2004

Map 5-5 Alabama Tornado Threat Contours

Map 5-6 Flood Zones

Map 5-7 Alabama Winter Storm Frequency,

Map 5-8 100-Year Hurricane Wind Speeds

Map 5-9 Hurricane Opal Track

Map 5-10 Hurricane Ivan Track

Map 5-11 Hurricane Ivan Alabama Path

Map 5-12 Hurricane Ivan Alabama Peak Wind Gusts

Map 5-13 Hurricane Paths,

Map 5-14 Forest Fuels??

Map 5-15 Wildfire Risk?

Map 5-16 Fire Observations

Map 5-17 Fire per 1,000 Acres

Map 5-18 Dams/Levees

Map 5-19 Dam Failure Inundation Areas

Map 5-20 Landslide Areas

Map 5-21 Seismic Zones

Map 5-22 Earthquake Ground Shaking Potential

Map 5-23 Earthquake Liquefaction Potential

Map 5-24 Peak Ground Acceleration

Map 5-25 Alabama Earthquake Locations

Map 5-26 1916 Irondale Earthquake

Map 5-27 PGA for 1916 Earthquake

Map 5-28 2003 Regional Earthquake Impacts

Map 5-29 2003 Fort Payne Earthquake Intensity

Map 5-30 Limestone Outcrops in Alabama

Map 5-31 Active Sinkhole Areas in Alabama

Map 5-32 Sinkhole Susceptibility

Map 5-33 Hazardous Materials Storage

Map 5-34 Government Facilities
Map Emergency Services Facilities

Map 5-36 Medical Care Facilities

Map 5-37 Emergency Shelters

Map 5-38 Schools ?

Map 5-39 Elderly Care and Living Facilities

Map 5-40 Communications Facilities

Map 5-41 Warning Sirens

Map 5-42 Gas and Electric Utilities

Map 5-43 Water and Sewer Facilities

Map 5-44 Transportation System Facilities

Map 5-45 Total Building Damages

Map 5-46 Total Residential Building Damage

Map 5-47 Value of Buildings Exposed to Flooding

Map 5-48 1916 Irondale Earthquake Ground Shaking Impacts

Map 5-49 1916 Irondale Earthquake Economic Loss Impacts

Map 5-50 Hurricane Opal Direct Economic Losses

Map 5-51 2007 Population Distribution

Map 5-52 Population Density Changes

Map 5-53 Distribution of Population Increases

Map 5-54 Land Use and Land Cover

Map 5-55 Guntersville Land Use

Map 5-56 Albertville Zoning

Map 5-57 Arab Land Use

List of Tables

Table 3-1 Summary of Plan Updates

Table 3-2 Weather Observations

Table 3-3 Population Change from 1990 to 2007

Table 3-4 Major Employers

Table 4-1 Summary of Plan Updates

Table 5-1 Summary of Plan Updates

Table 5-2 Identified Marshall County Hazards

Table 5-3 Comparison of Identified Marshall County Hazards to State Plan

Table 5-4 Federal Disaster Declarations Affecting Marshall County

Table 5-5 Enhanced F Scale for Tornado Damage

Table 5-6 Fujita Tornado Damage Scale

Table 5-7 Flood Zones??

Table 5-8 Saffir-Simpson Scale

Table 5-9 NOAA?s National Weather Service Heat Index

Table 5-10 Earthquake Scales Comparison

Table 5-11 Event Profiles for Terrorism and Technological Hazards

Table 5-12 Annual Summary of Tornado Events,

Table 5-13 Annual Summary of Severe Storm Events, 1960-2008

Table 5-14 Annual Summary of Flood Events,

Table 5-15 Winter Weather Observations

Table 5-16 Winter Storm Damages

Table 5-17 Extreme Cold Events and Damages

Table 5-18 Select Local News Reports of Winter Storms, 1960-1987

Table 5-19 Drought and Damages Table

Table 5-20 Extreme Heat and Damages

Table 5-21 Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale

Table 5-22 Historical Earthquakes,

Table 5-23 Summary of Hazards and Community Impacts

Table 5-24 Population Apportionment by Jurisdiction

Table 5-25 2025 County Growth Population

Table 5-26 Growth Allocation by Jurisdiction

Table 5-27 2025 Growth Projections and Multipliers

Table 5-28 Hazard Exposure Rates by Jurisdiction

Table 5-29 HAZUS-MH Population and Building Value Data

Table 5-30 HAZUS-MH Building Inventory by Occupancy

Table 5-31 HAZUS-MH Building Inventory by Construction Type

Table 5-32 Building Exposure by Occupancy

Table 5-33 Building Values by Jurisdiction

Table 5-34 Building County by Occupancy and Jurisdiction

Table 5-35 Building Exposure by Jurisdiction and Hazard

Table 5-36 HAZUS-MH Essential Facilities Data

Table 5-37 HAZUS-MH High Potential Loss Facilities Data

Table 5-38 HAZUS-MH Transportation Systems Lifeline Inventory

Table 5-39 HAZUS-MH Utilities Systems Lifeline Inventory

Table 5-40 Emergency Services Facilities

Table 5-41 Population Distribution by Jurisdiction

Table 5-42 HAZUS-MH Flood Module Quick Assessment Results

Table 5-43 Total Economic Losses by Jurisdiction

Table 5-44 Exposure of Buildings to 100 Year Flood

Table 5-45 Building Related Losses, 100 Year Flood

Table 5-46 Hurricane Economic Losses

Table 5-47 Annual Economic Losses due to Tornadoes

Table 5-48 Tornado Loss Estimates by Jurisdiction

Table 5-49 1990-2007 Population Growth

Table 5-50 2025 Projected Population

Table 5-51 NFIP Policies as of 1/31/09

Table 5-52 NFIP Losses through 2/28/09

Table 5-53 Jurisdictional Risk Variations

Table 6-1 Summary of Plan Updates

Table 6-2 Range of Mitigation Actions and Projects Considered

Table 6-3 NFIP Community Status, Marshall County Jurisdictions

Table 6-4 2009-2014 Community Mitigation Action Programs

Table 7-1 Summary of Plan Updates

List of Charts

Chart 3-1 Populations by Jurisdiction

Chart 3-2 Marshall County Population by Age

Chart 3-3 Educational Attainment for 25 Years Old and Older

Chart 5-1 Earthquake Magnitude Scale

Chart 5-2 Number of Tornadoes Per Year, 1950-2006

Chart 5-3 Monthly Tornado Frequency, 1950-2006

Chart 5-4 Hourly Tornado Frequency, 1950-2006

Chart 5-5 Tornado Threat Sectors

Chart 5-6 Annual Frequency of Tornado Intensity

List of Figures

Figure 5-1 How a Tornado Forms

Figure 5-2 Life Cycle of a Thunderstorm

Figure 5-3 Hail Stones

Figure 5-4 Flood Plain Cross Section

Figure 5-5 How a Hurricane Forms

Figure 5-6 Storm Surge?

Figure 5-7 Types of Winter Precipitation

Figure 5-8 Seismic and Surface waves

Figure 5-9 The Making of a Sinkhole

Figure 5-10 Formation of a Collapse

Figure 5-11 Sinkhole Collapse of House

Figure 5-12 Photo of 1908 Tornado

Figure 5-13 Photo of March 2002 Tornado

Figure 5-14 Photos of April 1985 Tornado

Figure 5-15 April 10, 2009, Severe Storm Radar Imagery

Figure 5-16 Guntersville Dam Plan Details

Figure 5-17 Photo of Guntersville Dam

Figure 5-18 Nickajack Dam Plan Details

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